Tag Archives: Indonesia

Indonesia Climate

With the exception of the highlands, most of Indonesia has a very moist (often over 90{73c3f12038ac8ffc68faa73467795b962c656c71fb4655564176b6dcb7acd9e9}) tropical rainy climate, with average monthly temperatures vary little from the high annual average around 25 to 27 ° C.

The maximum temperature may reach a value of 36 ° C. The temperature in the range is reduced by about 1 ° C per 170 meter increase off. In the central mountains of New Guinea is at approximately 4500 meter peaks above the snow and the mercury to drop to below freezing.

Parts of Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Irian Jaya have a savannah climate with a short dry season. in the Palu Valley of Central Sulawesi is less than 500 mm annually, and is the driest area of the archipelago.

On the islands south east Timor and Roti, the dry season lasting seven months. As for precipitation vary considerably, both in quantity and for the year during which it falls. From December to late March, the prevailing winds from the northeast on North Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, but during the passage of the equator, and they are bending over Java, Nusa Tenggara and beyond west northwest.

From June to October is the opposite direction, with an exceptionally dry air from the Australian desert to the southern half of Indonesia passes and over the southeast of Sumatra in a southwesterly direction changes. Then this air flow has become much water included. The rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the year.

There are dry and wet months. It takes several months in dry generally from west to east and from north to south. It is spoken as a dry months, less than 60 mm rainfall. But in areas highly exposed to the monsoon rainfall is much heavier for. In Padang example, on the southwest h Exhibition of Sumatra, is about 4500 mm annually.

The average annual rainfall is between 2000 and 3000 mm, 1800 mm in Jakarta. In general one can say that from October to May in Indonesia wet-monsoon period ( “musim hujan ‘) is. In the afternoon rains often several hours very localized, so everything refreshed and the temperature drops slightly.

Most rain falls in January and February. The dry season ( ‘musim kemarau’), from May to October, it is favorable to travel. It is very hot, and there is only occasionally a little rain that nature again refreshed.

Source: http://www . landenweb.net

Indonesia Geography


Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the islands of Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor.

Indonesia also shares borders with Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines to the north and Australia to the south across narrow straits of water. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation’s largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang. At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world’s 16th-largest country in terms of land area.I ts average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world,[62] although Java, the world’s most populous island, has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 meters (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia’s highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country’s largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island’s river settlements.

Indonesia’s location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra, and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali

Indonesia Population


Anthropologists divide the people of Indonesia in three main groups. The Balinese, Madurese, the Malays of Sumatra and the Irish and Massakarezen Bugis of Sulawesi are among the Deutero-Malay peoples. They generally have a slender physique, a copper-colored skin and really pronounced Mongoloid features.

The Dayaks of Kalimantan, and the Toradja Toalans of Sulawesi, including the Konjo, and their Btaks of Sumatra are known as proto-

The Austronesian peoples of the eastern islands are contrary weather darker and have a heavier build.

In the Indonesian archipelago live more than 300 distinct ethnic groups, each with its own identity. There are huge physical differences between people in different parts of the archipelago, in terms of pigmentation, hair type, shape and facial features. This ethnographic diversity can be explained by the successive waves of migration from mainland Asia and maybe even from Africa. The various groups arrived in a series of massive waves of migration, at intervals of several centuries. How all this work has gone is still not well understood. A more likely explanation is that small groups from Asia, the Indonesian area slowly came to and, over thousands of years, with the original mixed population Australoïde, and ultimately have largely replaced.

The vast majority of the population belongs to the Malay race. There are clear cultural differences mainly between Batak eg, Dayaks and other Toradja and Javanese, the largest group, Sundanese, Madurese, Irish Male in the narrower sense, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Balinese, and Buginese. In Irian Jaya and the surrounding islands live up to the Melanesian group, Papuans. Nations which have characteristics of both the Malays and Melanesians Irish found on Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, particularly in Timor. There are some small, isolated living, belonging to the European main breed groups, such as in Sumatra and Koeboes Mentawaiers.

The Chinese, of whom more than 5 million, represent by far the largest ethnic subgroup in Indonesian society. The Chinese live mostly in port cities and larger towns in Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan. They dominate the market and among the wealthy in Indonesia. The economic success of the Chinese, the relationship with other Indonesians any easier.

Brief description of the population on the large islands


The bulk of the population lives in Sumatra long chain of undulating hills at the foot of the Bukit Barisan ‘and along rivers and lakes in the highlands. It is home to two major indigenous peoples, and the Minangkabau Bataks. We share here a number of smaller ethnic groups such as Acehnese, Gayo’s, Alas, Kubu, Kerinci, Rejang, Mentawei, Enggano and Lampung.

The highlands are thus the habitat of more than three million members of the six main Batakstammen, the Toba, Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, and Mandailing Angkola. They each display their own dialect, customs and architecture. The Bataks more than 1500 years ago to Sumatra drawn from the mountains of the Himalayas in northern Myanmar and Thailand.

Under the Northern Bataks are still animists, Muslims in the southern Bataks, especially Mandailing. Bataks by many German and Dutch missionaries converted to Christianity.

The Minangkabau live mainly in West Sumatra and are related to the Malays of the Irish east coast of Sumatra. There are currently around seven million Minangkabau, West Sumatra in three million and four million scattered in major cities throughout Indonesia. The Minangkabau have, unlike the Bataks example, traditionally a high degree of literacy and general management skills. This is why they always played an important role in the political, economic and scientific development of Indonesia. Many famous writers and Indonesian leaders are also coming from West Sumatra.


The Javanese themselves constitute about two thirds of the total population (approx. 79 million) and inhabit the fertile plains of Central and East Java, and much of the north coast. In the higher parts of West Java, the population mainly Muslim Sundanese (approx. 30 million), on the island of Madura and the opposite parts of East Java are home to many Madurese. The Sundanese are in appearance indistinguishable from the Javanese in Central and East Java. In the far west Badui life and in the extreme east of Tenggerezen. In the major port cities along the northern coast, a lot of Arabs, Chinese and Europeans established.

The Sundanese have its own culture, with the complex and angklung gamelan music, the popular and lively dances jaipongan golek wayang performances.

The steep slopes of active volcanoes Gunung Semeru and Mount Bromo are inhabited for centuries by the people of the Hindu Tenggerezen. The Tenggerezen, of which an estimated 40,000 remain, trapped in oppression by the steadily increasing vetsiging of Madurese and Central Javanese people.

The Baduy belong to the so-called Mandala community, which relies on a belief in Hindu-Buddhist Oudjavaans draw


The largest population group in Bali is the Balinese (about 3 million), descended from the second wave of people movers.

Bali was inhabited relatively early and developed a Balinese Hindu-Buddhist culture with its own high character. Bali has the largest Hindu community in the world outside India. Ninety percent of the Balinese people is the follower of Balinese Hinduism.

Until the early 20th century, the Balinese totally isolated from the rest of the world.


The people of Lombok (approx. 1.7 million) consists Sasak Muslim, Hindu Balinese, Chinese and Arabs. Approximately 10% of the population is Hindu, and most Lombok Lombok Cherry live in cities and villages on the narrow plain in the middle west of the island. The vast majority of the population is Sasak, itself a distinction between two more or less distinct groups, the Waktu-telu who live in the mountains and Waktu Lima, who live in the lowlands.

The handful of remaining original inhabitants, the Bodha, lives in the isolated southeast of the island.

Nusa Tenggara – the Lesser Sunda Islands

The inhabitants of the western part of Nusa Tenggara have Mongolian features, which tend more to the east of the Melanesian type.

Nusa Tenggara is one of the poorest and most arid areas of Indonesia. Most of the approximately 10 million inhabitants are farmers or fishermen Nusa Tenggara.

The people of Sumbawa are Muslims. West Sumba has approximately 350,000 inhabitants, with two separate language groups. The people are still living in traditional stilt houses and the worship of the land and the ancestors is still alive. East Sumba is dry and rocky and has approximately 250,000 inhabitants who all speak the same language.

Flores is the largest island in the eastern part of Nusa Tenggara. Of the approximately 1.4 million inhabitants of Flores is now 90% Catholic, but interspersed with many traditional views and practices.

In the east of Nusa Tenggara is a number of smaller islands, including Solor, Adonara, Lembata, Pantar, Alor, Roti and Sawu. The inhabitants of these islands since time immemorial have maintained contact with each other and with the population of the larger islands, and have over centuries developed high cultures.


Kalimantan is the name of the Indonesian territory that covers two thirds of the island of Borneo.The first people arrived from mainland Asia around 3000 BC Borneo. The bulk of the population, mostly Chinese and Malaysians, living in coastal areas. In East Kalimantan (“Kalimantan Timur” or Kaltim), but 1.5 million inhabitants live in an area as big as England and Scotland together.Most are farmers from overpopulated Java.

Central Kalimantan is home of the Dayaks, the collective name for about 200 different nations upstream of the rivers Kapuas, Barito and Mahakam live. The Ngaju are the largest of the groups of Dayaks living in the province. Many of them are converted by the Christian faith, but many others held on to the old belief of the Dayaks, that “kaharingan ‘called. Other tribes are known: Iban, Kenyah, Tunjung, Kayan, and Punane Benuaq.

The Penan tribe members are the original inhabitants of Borneo, the Dayaks who even lived.There are about 10,000 living in enclaves Penen in the upper catchment of the Apo Kayan and Mahakam.

The large Chinese community in West Kalimantan (“Kalimantan Barat” or Kalbar) comes from the miners here in the early 19th century flowed go. Most Chinese were living in these areas and married native women. Their descendants now form one of the largest Chinese communities in Indonesia.

Sulawesi (Celebes)

The island of Sulawesi is home to the Toradja’s of the highlands and the seafaring Bugis. The nine million islanders show a great variety: there are eg more than 40 different languages. The central location of Sulawesi in the Indonesian archipelago has contributed greatly to the heterogeneity of the population.

The coastal areas and the lowlands of South Sulawesi is now inhabited by Mongoloid peoples, collectively referred to as ‘Bugis’, traditionally sailors and shipbuilders.

In South Sulawesi live approximately 6 million inhabitants and an average of 125 inhabitants per km 2 is one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia.

Between the rugged peaks and fertile plateaus of the southern part of Central Sulawesi is home to many isolated evolken alive, who share a common ancestry with the seafaring Bugis, Macassar and Manda rose. The coast of Sulawesi residents call these people the “Toraja” the “peoples of the highlands. Tanah Toraja or their habitat hot Toradjaland.

The Toradja’s traditionally lived in small fortified settlements on the hilltops. In the early 20th century were the Toradja’s Dutch colonial government contract to move from their hilltops to the more accessible and control valleys and lowlands. The Toradja’s owe their fame to the grand and colorful festivals that are held to ensure that the soul of a deceased to the grave or ‘puya’ can proceed in a manner consistent with their status on earth. In North Sulawesi are approximately 2.3 million people, more than 200,000 in the capital Manado.

The peoples of the Mongoloid Minahassers descendants of immigrants who settled here thousands of years ago. Their languages are related to the languages spoken in the Philippines.Later, Here also large numbers of Chinese and Europeans in this area established by marriages between the groups has created a mixed population.


Or the Moluccas Maluku is a province with thousands of islands scattered over an area of approximately 1.5 million km2.

The largest ethnic group in the Moluccas is the Ambonese, on Ambon, Saparua, Nusa Laut Seram and live.

The pagan Naulu are one of the few remaining people of the Moluccas who cling to their old traditions without religious influences.

Irian Jaya

Irian Jaya is the western half of New Guinea, after Greenland’s second largest island in the world (Greenland is the largest island). Irian Jaya is the most sparsely populated province of Indonesia. In most areas live less than six people per km2 and there are even areas not inhabited.

Indigenous Papuans are classified as blacks in the higher altitudes and living a very dark house, and a mixture of black and Melanesian races to the coast and in the lower hilly areas.

The first inhabitants of New Guinea arrived from the west, probably about 60,000 years ago.Small groups settled along the coast and not far inland locations. Probably the island was little contact between different groups, creating the incredible number of 800 languages buckle rooks on New Guinea, about 550 in Papua New Guinea and about 250 in Irian Jaya. Some languages are spoken by only 2,000 people.

People from southern China and Taiwan arrived on the island, but failed the majority of Papuans to resist assimilation by newcomers, who just settled on some nearby islands and coastal areas of the island.

In the fertile valley life Baliem the Dani, the famous tribe of the interior of Irian Jaya. They lived in relative isolation until their discovery in 1938. Now, after more than fifty years of contact with the outside world, the life styles have changed, but the men still wear only penis sheaths characteristic and women a skirt of grass.

The land of the Asmat, master woodcarvers from the marshes, the place is about agate. The 70,000-member Asmat tribe is the largest in the region and living in about 100 villages that are located in an area of 27,000 km2. Most of the Asmat live in the marshes have adopted the Christian faith.

The other people in the area are divided into two groups: the coastal peoples and the peoples of the interior. They speak different dialects and have a different way of life, social structure and ceremonies. The peoples on the coast are also divided into two groups: the Bisma and Simai.


Garuda Indonesia

Garuda Indonesia makes triumphant return to Europe
door jalan2indonesia@yahoo.com (Jalan2Indonesia)

Indonesian flag carrier Garuda Indonesia has made its triumphant return to Europe after a six year break, which included a two-year ban over safety fears.

An Airbus 330-200 aircraft took off from Jakarta at 01:40 GMT yesterday bound for Amsterdam via Dubai.

The Amsterdam connection is the first Garuda flight to Europe since late 2004 and comes less than a year after European Union regulators cleared the airline to fly in EU airspace again.

“Amsterdam is the first of several major European destinations which Garuda Indonesia intends to add to its fast-growing network over the next four years.

“The other potential destinations include; Frankfurt, London, Paris and Rome,” Bagus Y. Siregar Senior General Manager Australia/SWP, Garuda Indonesia told e-Travel Blackboard.

Siregar said Amsterdam was the “obvious choice” as its first destination in Europe given Indonesia’s strong historical ties with the Netherlands.

Commenting on the airline’s big ‘comeback’, Siregar said the airline was expanding its fleet and adding more routes ahead of a planned initial public offering later this year.

“Throughout 2010 Garuda Indonesia will be receiving 23 Boeing 737-800 Next Generation and one A330-200 aircraft.

One of Asia’s most successful carriers through the GFC, Garuda Indonesia was voted by SkyTrax as the ‘World’s Most Improved Airline’.

The airline has also developed a new service concept – including new uniforms and in-flight menus – and it has strengthened its operational safety procedures, which has included an extensive pilot training program.
Siregar concluded, “As travellers hear about these achievements and experience the new Garuda Indonesia we have no doubt that public perceptions will increasingly align with Garuda’s ambition to become one of Asia’s most successful and profitable airlines.”

Indonesia eyes NL

The Jakarta Post , Jakarta | Tue, 10/13/2009 4:52 PM | Business

The Culture and Tourism Ministry has targeted 15 countries worldwide to promote tourism in Indonesia.

Of the 15 nations, three countries have never been designated as potential markets for tourists, the Philippines, India and Russia, the ministry’s director general of marketing Sapta Nirwandar said Tuesday.

The other 12 nations are Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Australia, China, the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

In 2008, Singapore was the country that sent the most foreign tourists to Indonesia with 1,197,267 tourists. Second was Malaysia with 1,009,722 tourists.

Most Singaporean tourists visited Batam, while most Malaysian visited Jakarta.

The third-highest number of foreign tourists came from Japan with 559,888 tourists, most of whom visited Bali.

“In 2010, we have set targets of 1.3 million tourists from Singapore and 1.25 million from Malaysia,” Sapta said. (bbs)

Bron: The Jakarta post