Anthropologists divide the people of Indonesia in three main groups. The Balinese, Madurese, the Malays of Sumatra and the Irish and Massakarezen Bugis of Sulawesi are among the Deutero-Malay peoples. They generally have a slender physique, a copper-colored skin and really pronounced Mongoloid features.
The Dayaks of Kalimantan, and the Toradja Toalans of Sulawesi, including the Konjo, and their Btaks of Sumatra are known as proto-
The Austronesian peoples of the eastern islands are contrary weather darker and have a heavier build.
In the Indonesian archipelago live more than 300 distinct ethnic groups, each with its own identity. There are huge physical differences between people in different parts of the archipelago, in terms of pigmentation, hair type, shape and facial features. This ethnographic diversity can be explained by the successive waves of migration from mainland Asia and maybe even from Africa. The various groups arrived in a series of massive waves of migration, at intervals of several centuries. How all this work has gone is still not well understood. A more likely explanation is that small groups from Asia, the Indonesian area slowly came to and, over thousands of years, with the original mixed population Australoïde, and ultimately have largely replaced.
The vast majority of the population belongs to the Malay race. There are clear cultural differences mainly between Batak eg, Dayaks and other Toradja and Javanese, the largest group, Sundanese, Madurese, Irish Male in the narrower sense, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Balinese, and Buginese. In Irian Jaya and the surrounding islands live up to the Melanesian group, Papuans. Nations which have characteristics of both the Malays and Melanesians Irish found on Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, particularly in Timor. There are some small, isolated living, belonging to the European main breed groups, such as in Sumatra and Koeboes Mentawaiers.
The Chinese, of whom more than 5 million, represent by far the largest ethnic subgroup in Indonesian society. The Chinese live mostly in port cities and larger towns in Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan. They dominate the market and among the wealthy in Indonesia. The economic success of the Chinese, the relationship with other Indonesians any easier.
Brief description of the population on the large islands
The bulk of the population lives in Sumatra long chain of undulating hills at the foot of the Bukit Barisan ‘and along rivers and lakes in the highlands. It is home to two major indigenous peoples, and the Minangkabau Bataks. We share here a number of smaller ethnic groups such as Acehnese, Gayo’s, Alas, Kubu, Kerinci, Rejang, Mentawei, Enggano and Lampung.
The highlands are thus the habitat of more than three million members of the six main Batakstammen, the Toba, Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, and Mandailing Angkola. They each display their own dialect, customs and architecture. The Bataks more than 1500 years ago to Sumatra drawn from the mountains of the Himalayas in northern Myanmar and Thailand.
Under the Northern Bataks are still animists, Muslims in the southern Bataks, especially Mandailing. Bataks by many German and Dutch missionaries converted to Christianity.
The Minangkabau live mainly in West Sumatra and are related to the Malays of the Irish east coast of Sumatra. There are currently around seven million Minangkabau, West Sumatra in three million and four million scattered in major cities throughout Indonesia. The Minangkabau have, unlike the Bataks example, traditionally a high degree of literacy and general management skills. This is why they always played an important role in the political, economic and scientific development of Indonesia. Many famous writers and Indonesian leaders are also coming from West Sumatra.
The Javanese themselves constitute about two thirds of the total population (approx. 79 million) and inhabit the fertile plains of Central and East Java, and much of the north coast. In the higher parts of West Java, the population mainly Muslim Sundanese (approx. 30 million), on the island of Madura and the opposite parts of East Java are home to many Madurese. The Sundanese are in appearance indistinguishable from the Javanese in Central and East Java. In the far west Badui life and in the extreme east of Tenggerezen. In the major port cities along the northern coast, a lot of Arabs, Chinese and Europeans established.
The Sundanese have its own culture, with the complex and angklung gamelan music, the popular and lively dances jaipongan golek wayang performances.
The steep slopes of active volcanoes Gunung Semeru and Mount Bromo are inhabited for centuries by the people of the Hindu Tenggerezen. The Tenggerezen, of which an estimated 40,000 remain, trapped in oppression by the steadily increasing vetsiging of Madurese and Central Javanese people.
The Baduy belong to the so-called Mandala community, which relies on a belief in Hindu-Buddhist Oudjavaans draw
The largest population group in Bali is the Balinese (about 3 million), descended from the second wave of people movers.
Bali was inhabited relatively early and developed a Balinese Hindu-Buddhist culture with its own high character. Bali has the largest Hindu community in the world outside India. Ninety percent of the Balinese people is the follower of Balinese Hinduism.
Until the early 20th century, the Balinese totally isolated from the rest of the world.
The people of Lombok (approx. 1.7 million) consists Sasak Muslim, Hindu Balinese, Chinese and Arabs. Approximately 10% of the population is Hindu, and most Lombok Lombok Cherry live in cities and villages on the narrow plain in the middle west of the island. The vast majority of the population is Sasak, itself a distinction between two more or less distinct groups, the Waktu-telu who live in the mountains and Waktu Lima, who live in the lowlands.
The handful of remaining original inhabitants, the Bodha, lives in the isolated southeast of the island.
Nusa Tenggara – the Lesser Sunda Islands
The inhabitants of the western part of Nusa Tenggara have Mongolian features, which tend more to the east of the Melanesian type.
Nusa Tenggara is one of the poorest and most arid areas of Indonesia. Most of the approximately 10 million inhabitants are farmers or fishermen Nusa Tenggara.
The people of Sumbawa are Muslims. West Sumba has approximately 350,000 inhabitants, with two separate language groups. The people are still living in traditional stilt houses and the worship of the land and the ancestors is still alive. East Sumba is dry and rocky and has approximately 250,000 inhabitants who all speak the same language.
Flores is the largest island in the eastern part of Nusa Tenggara. Of the approximately 1.4 million inhabitants of Flores is now 90% Catholic, but interspersed with many traditional views and practices.
In the east of Nusa Tenggara is a number of smaller islands, including Solor, Adonara, Lembata, Pantar, Alor, Roti and Sawu. The inhabitants of these islands since time immemorial have maintained contact with each other and with the population of the larger islands, and have over centuries developed high cultures.
Kalimantan is the name of the Indonesian territory that covers two thirds of the island of Borneo.The first people arrived from mainland Asia around 3000 BC Borneo. The bulk of the population, mostly Chinese and Malaysians, living in coastal areas. In East Kalimantan (“Kalimantan Timur” or Kaltim), but 1.5 million inhabitants live in an area as big as England and Scotland together.Most are farmers from overpopulated Java.
Central Kalimantan is home of the Dayaks, the collective name for about 200 different nations upstream of the rivers Kapuas, Barito and Mahakam live. The Ngaju are the largest of the groups of Dayaks living in the province. Many of them are converted by the Christian faith, but many others held on to the old belief of the Dayaks, that “kaharingan ‘called. Other tribes are known: Iban, Kenyah, Tunjung, Kayan, and Punane Benuaq.
The Penan tribe members are the original inhabitants of Borneo, the Dayaks who even lived.There are about 10,000 living in enclaves Penen in the upper catchment of the Apo Kayan and Mahakam.
The large Chinese community in West Kalimantan (“Kalimantan Barat” or Kalbar) comes from the miners here in the early 19th century flowed go. Most Chinese were living in these areas and married native women. Their descendants now form one of the largest Chinese communities in Indonesia.
The island of Sulawesi is home to the Toradja’s of the highlands and the seafaring Bugis. The nine million islanders show a great variety: there are eg more than 40 different languages. The central location of Sulawesi in the Indonesian archipelago has contributed greatly to the heterogeneity of the population.
The coastal areas and the lowlands of South Sulawesi is now inhabited by Mongoloid peoples, collectively referred to as ‘Bugis’, traditionally sailors and shipbuilders.
In South Sulawesi live approximately 6 million inhabitants and an average of 125 inhabitants per km 2 is one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia.
Between the rugged peaks and fertile plateaus of the southern part of Central Sulawesi is home to many isolated evolken alive, who share a common ancestry with the seafaring Bugis, Macassar and Manda rose. The coast of Sulawesi residents call these people the “Toraja” the “peoples of the highlands. Tanah Toraja or their habitat hot Toradjaland.
The Toradja’s traditionally lived in small fortified settlements on the hilltops. In the early 20th century were the Toradja’s Dutch colonial government contract to move from their hilltops to the more accessible and control valleys and lowlands. The Toradja’s owe their fame to the grand and colorful festivals that are held to ensure that the soul of a deceased to the grave or ‘puya’ can proceed in a manner consistent with their status on earth. In North Sulawesi are approximately 2.3 million people, more than 200,000 in the capital Manado.
The peoples of the Mongoloid Minahassers descendants of immigrants who settled here thousands of years ago. Their languages are related to the languages spoken in the Philippines.Later, Here also large numbers of Chinese and Europeans in this area established by marriages between the groups has created a mixed population.
Or the Moluccas Maluku is a province with thousands of islands scattered over an area of approximately 1.5 million km2.
The largest ethnic group in the Moluccas is the Ambonese, on Ambon, Saparua, Nusa Laut Seram and live.
The pagan Naulu are one of the few remaining people of the Moluccas who cling to their old traditions without religious influences.
Irian Jaya is the western half of New Guinea, after Greenland’s second largest island in the world (Greenland is the largest island). Irian Jaya is the most sparsely populated province of Indonesia. In most areas live less than six people per km2 and there are even areas not inhabited.
Indigenous Papuans are classified as blacks in the higher altitudes and living a very dark house, and a mixture of black and Melanesian races to the coast and in the lower hilly areas.
The first inhabitants of New Guinea arrived from the west, probably about 60,000 years ago.Small groups settled along the coast and not far inland locations. Probably the island was little contact between different groups, creating the incredible number of 800 languages buckle rooks on New Guinea, about 550 in Papua New Guinea and about 250 in Irian Jaya. Some languages are spoken by only 2,000 people.
People from southern China and Taiwan arrived on the island, but failed the majority of Papuans to resist assimilation by newcomers, who just settled on some nearby islands and coastal areas of the island.
In the fertile valley life Baliem the Dani, the famous tribe of the interior of Irian Jaya. They lived in relative isolation until their discovery in 1938. Now, after more than fifty years of contact with the outside world, the life styles have changed, but the men still wear only penis sheaths characteristic and women a skirt of grass.
The land of the Asmat, master woodcarvers from the marshes, the place is about agate. The 70,000-member Asmat tribe is the largest in the region and living in about 100 villages that are located in an area of 27,000 km2. Most of the Asmat live in the marshes have adopted the Christian faith.
The other people in the area are divided into two groups: the coastal peoples and the peoples of the interior. They speak different dialects and have a different way of life, social structure and ceremonies. The peoples on the coast are also divided into two groups: the Bisma and Simai.